SUGGESTED READING

Compassionate Conservation

Ryan K. Brook, Marc Cattet, Chris T Darimont, Paul C. Paquet, Gilbert Proulx. (2015).

Maintaining ethical standards during conservation crises. Canadian Wildlife Biology and Management 4(1): 72-79.

 

John Vucetich and Michael P. Nelson. (2014).

Wolf Hunting and the Effects of Lethal Control. Oxford Handbooks On-line. DOI:10.1093/oxfordhb/9780199927142.013.007

 

Paul C Paquet and Chris T Darimont (2010).

Wildlife conservation and animal welfare: two sides of the same coin? Animal Welfare 19: 177-190

 

Marco Musiani and Paul Paquet (2004).

The Practices of Wolf Persecution, Protection, and Restoration in Canada and the United States. Bioscience 54 (1): 50 - 60.

 

Marco Musiani, Sk. Morshed Anwar, Gregory J. McDermid, Mark Hebblewhite, Danielle J. Marceau. (2010).

How humans shape wolf behavior in Banff and Kootenay National Parks, Canada. Ecological Modelling 221, 2374-2387.

 

John F. Benson, Brent R. Patterson, Peter J. Mahoney. (2014)

A protected area influences genotype-specific survival and the structure of a Canis hybrid zone. Ecology 95:2, 254-264.

 

Creel S, Rotella JJ (2010).

Meta-Analysis of Relationships between Human Offtake, Total Mortality and Population Dynamics of Gray Wolves (Canis lupus). PLoS ONE 5(9): e12918.

Brook, Ryan K.., Marc Cattet, Chris T Darimont, Paul C. Paquet, Gilbert Proulx. (2015).

Maintaining ethical standards during conservation crises. Canadian Wildlife Biology and Management 4(1): 72-79.

A recent review of 25 years of records provided evidence for what many other biologists have stated, that hunted wolves kill more livestock (or wild game) the next year:

 

Bryan, H.M., Smits, J.E.G., Koren, L., Paquet, P.C., Wynne-Edwards, K. E., and Musiani, M. 2014.

Heavily hunted wolves have higher stress and reproductive hormones than wolves with lower hunting pressure. Functional Ecology.

 

Biologist Bob Hayes who participated in Yukon government wolf kills and sterilization now speaks firmly against these practices based on what he has learned from experience:

 

 

Robert L. Beschta and William J. Ripple (2009). Large predators and trophic cascades in terrestrial ecosystems of the western United States. Biological Conservation 142 (11): 2401 - 2414.

Ecological role

 

Robert L. Beschta and William J. Ripple (2009).

Large predators and trophic cascades in terrestrial ecosystems of the western United States. Biological Conservation 142 (11): 2401 - 2414.

 

Robert L. Beschta and William J. Ripple (2004).

Wolves and the Ecology of Fear: Can Predation Risk Structure Ecosystems? BioScience 54 (8): 755-766.

 

Mark Hebblewhite, Daniel H Pletscher, Paul C Paquet (2002).

Elk population dynamics in areas with and without predation by recolonizing wolves in Banff National Park, Alberta. Canadian Journal of Zoology 80(5): 789-799.

 

Libby P. W. Ehlers, Chris J. Johnson, Dale R. Seip (2014).

Movement ecology of wolves across an industrial landscape supporting threatened populations of woodland caribou. Landscape Ecology 29, 451-465.

 

G.A. Bradshaw and Marc Bekoff (2001)

Ecology and social responsibility: the re-embodiment of science. TRENDS in Ecology & Evolution 16:460-465.

Effectiveness of lethal vs. non-lethal predator control regarding wolves and prevention of conflicts with livestock

Santiago-Avila, F.J., A.M. Cornman, and A. Treves. 2018.

Killing wolves to prevent predation on livestock may protect one farm but harm neighbors. PloS ONE 13(1), p.e0189729


 

Treves, A., M. Krofel, and J. McManus. 2016.

Predator control should not be a shot in the dark. Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment 14(7):380-388. 

 

 

Bradley J. Bergstrom;

Carnivore conservation: shifting the paradigm from control to coexistence, Journal of Mammalogy, Volume 98, Issue 1, 8 February 2017, Pages 1–6.

 

 

Wielgus RB, Peebles KA.  2014.

Effects of Wolf Mortality on Livestock Depredations. PLoSONE 9(12).

            

 

Wallach, A.D, E.G. Ritchie, J. Read, and A.J. O'Neill. 2009.
More than Mere Numbers: The Impact of Lethal Control on the Social Stability of a Top-Order Predator. PloS ONE 4(9): e6861. 

 

Musiani, M., T. Muhly, C.C. Gates, and C. Callaghan. 2005.

Seasonality and reoccurrence of depredation and wolf control in western North America. Wildlife Society Bulletin 33(3): 876-88. 

 

Future Direction and Research needed regarding wolves and prevention of conflicts with livestock

van Eeden LM, Eklund A, Miller JRB, López-Bao JV, Chapron G, Cejtin MR, et al. (2018)

Carnivore conservation needs evidence-based livestock protection. PLoS Biol 16(9): e2005577.

Prevention-based practices regarding wolves and prevention of conflicts with livestock

 

Wolf Awareness Inc., 2017.

A Ranchers Guide – Coexistence among livestock, people, and wolves (2nd ed.)

 

Treves, Adrian, and Mark F. Rabenhorst.

Risk Map for Wolf Threats to Livestock Still Predictive 5 Years after Construction. Ed. Joseph K. Bump. PLoS ONE 12.6 (2017): e0180043.

 

 

Gehring, Thomas M.; Vercauteren, Kurt C.; Provost, Megan L.; and Cellar, Anna C. 2010.

Utility of livestock-protection dogs for deterring wildlife from cattle farms. USDA National Wildlife Research Center - Staff Publications. Paper 1344. 

Preventative measures for large-scale ranching and free-roaming herds regarding wolves and prevention of conflicts with livestock

Suzanne A. Stone, Stewart W. Breck, Jesse Timberlake, Peter M. Haswell, Fernando Najera, Brian S. Bean, Daniel J. Thornhill.  2017.
Adaptive use of nonlethal strategies for minimizing wolf–sheep conflict in Idaho, Journal of Mammalogy, Volume 98, Issue 1, Pages 33–44.

Barnes, M. 2015.

Low-stress Herding Improves Herd Instinct, Facilitates Strategic Grazing Management. Stockmanship Journal. 4 (1): 34-43.

 


Livestock Management for Coexistence with Large Carnivores, Healthy Land and Productive Ranches.
2015. A white paper By Matt Barnes People and Carnivores.

Social Dynamics

Linda Y. Rutledge, Brent R. Patterson , Kenneth J. Mills , Karen M. Loveless, Dennis L. Murray , Bradley N. White (2009).

Protection from harvesting restores the natural social structure of eastern wolf packs. Biological Conservation 143 (2010): 332–339.

 

 

Gehring, Thomas M., Bruce E. Kohn, Joelle L. Gehring, and Eric M. Anderson( 2003).

Limits to plasticity in Gray Wolf, Canis lupus, pack structure: conservation implications for recovering populations. Canadian Field-Naturalist 117(2):419–423.

Woodland Caribou

 

Johnson, Chris. J., Libby .P.W. Ehlers and Dale.R Seip. (2015).

Witnessing Extinction - Cumulative impacts across landscapes and the future loss of an evolutionary significant unit of woodland caribou in Canada. Biological Conservation 186: 176 - 186.

 

Festa-Bianchet, M., J.C. Ray, S. Boutin, S.D. Cote and A. Gunn. (2011).

Conservation of caribou (Rangifer tarandus) in Canada: and uncertain future. Canadian Journal of Zoology 89: 419 - 434.

 

Wasser, Samuel K., Jonah L Keim, Mark L Taper and Subhash R Lele. (2011).

The influences of wolf predation, habitat loss, and human activity on caribou and moose in the Alberta oil sands. Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment.; doi: 10.1890/100071.

 

Libby P. W. Ehlers, Chris J. Johnson, Dale R. Seip (2014).

Movement ecology of wolves across an industrial landscape supporting threatened populations of woodland caribou. Landscape Ecology 29, 451-465.

 

Hebblewhite, M., C. White and M. Musiani. (2009).

Revisiting Extinction in National Parks: Mountain Caribou in Banff. Conservation Biology 24(1): 341-344.

 

Ineffective and Unethical wolf killing in AB: A recent study in Alberta (which was highly criticised for its unethical treatment of animals) revealed that killing more than 800 wolves over a 7 year period in an area used by the Little Smokey Caribou herd did nothing to significantly increase caribou female recruitment nor calf survivorship numbers.

Original article :

Dave Hervieux, Mark Hebblewhite, Dave Stepnisky, Michelle Bacon, and Stan Boutin. (2015).

Managing wolves (Canis lupus) to recover threatened woodland caribou (Rangifer tarandus caribou) in Alberta. Canadian Journal of Zoology. 92:1029 - 1037

 

And view 2 powerful rebuttals from leading experts about this experiment: (Article by Mark Bekoff)

 

 

 

POPULAR MEDIA: LITERATURE AND VIDEO

Ecology of Top Predators

The Wolf's Tooth – Book (2010); Cristina Eisenberg.  Trophic cascades and the role of top predators.

 

William J. Ripple,* James A. Estes, Robert L. Beschta, Christopher C. Wilmers, Euan G. Ritchie,Mark Hebblewhite, Joel Berger, Bodil Elmhagen, Mike Letnic, Michael P. Nelson, Oswald J. Schmitz, Douglas W. Smith, Arian D. Wallach, Aaron J. Wirsing  (2014).

Status and Ecological Effects of the World’s Largest Carnivores.  Science 343

Wolf Behaviour

Among Wolves - Book: Gordon Haber & Marybeth Holleman

Arctic Wild - Book: Lois Crisler

 

Wolf Ecology

The Wolf's Tooth - Book; Cristina Eisenberg. Trophic cascades and the role of top predators.

 

Decade of the Wolf - Book: Doug Smith and Gary Ferguson. Returning the wild to Yellowstone.

 

Lords of Nature - Video: Green Fire Productions

 

Yellowstone - Video: PBS Nature

 

Cry of the Wild - Video: Bill Mason

The Human Dimension

Of Wolves and Men – Book (1979); Barry Lopez.  Natural history.

The Truth About Aerial Hunting of Wolves in Alaska - Video: Defenders of Wildlife.

Children's Category

Wolf Island - Book: Celia Godkin

The Sea Wolves - Book: Ian McAllister

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